The AIRE (Registry of Italians Resident Abroad) was established in 1990 following the enactment of law 470/1988 and is an Archive that contains data relating to Italian citizens who, for various reasons, are located in reside outside the Italian territory.
Italian citizens who move permanently and permanently abroad for a period of at least 12 months as well as citizens who already reside abroad are obliged to register with AIRE (although no penalty is envisaged in the event of non-registration). because they were born abroad or for subsequent acquisition of Italian citizenship for any reason.
The keeping of the registry of Italian citizens residing abroad is the responsibility of individual Italian municipalities. Each Municipality, in fact, has its own register, which helps to form the national register, commonly called AIRE. Registration with AIRE can be done in two different ways. Before going abroad, or once you arrive in the country where you want to establish the new residence. In any case, it must be remembered that the law establishes that every person who moves abroad must communicate their transfer within 90 days from the date of expatriation. Registration is carried out in the last municipality where the Italian residence of the subject is established.
Once enrolled in AIRE, the citizen will be required to communicate all changes in the personal data that have subsequently occurred such as, for example, changes of address, changes in their marital status, definitive return to Italy and loss of citizenship.
Registration in AIRE entails multiple advantages such as:
- possibility to vote for political elections and referendums by correspondence in the country of residence, and for the election of Italian representatives to the European Parliament in the seats established by the diplomatic-consular network in the countries belonging to the EU;
- obtain the issue or renewal of identity and travel documents, as well as certifications;
- possibility to renew the driving license (only in non-EU countries);
- possibility of requesting a refund of VAT on goods purchased in Italy. In this case it will be necessary to present to the Italian trader a document certifying the residence abroad and request a declaration of VAT exemption. This document must be presented at the airport to the customs authorities for which the refund is requested
Registering with Aire is also convenient from a tax point of view. In fact, registration with Aire allows the Italian who has decided to work abroad to pay taxes directly in the host country. And often, we know, people move precisely to escape the grip of the Italian tax burden in favor of more competitive taxation.
To the undoubted benefits that registration with AIRE entails, however, there are also some disadvantages such as the loss for Italians abroad of the right in Italy to a general practitioner, hospital assistance through mutual assistance and the purchase of medicines against payment of the ticket only. The only thing that is not lost is the right to urgent health care, that is, that which passes through the emergency room, for a maximum period of 90 days, even if not consecutive.